DNA Repair Creams. Part 3. How a cell protects itself?
Fortunately, there is a defence mechanism
in each cell, which tracks DNA damages. The enzymes called reparations find the changed parts and reconstruct the correct sequence of the nucleotides.
However, when there is an extensive damage of the skin cells
caused by high dose of UV radiation,
the activity of the enzymes is reduced and might be insufficient to correct all the faults.
A cell with many mutations can be harmful for the
Therefore, when a cell cannot repair the damage, the next step of protection is launched. There is a special protein in cells -
p53 - which either suspends the division of a cell till the DNA damage reparation is finished or engages its
"programmed death" to prevent the reproduction of the cell with changed DNA.
the gene encoding p53 can be damaged by UV and in this case the cells with DNA mutations will be able to divide.
Additional reparation enzymes wouldn’t go amiss
Reparation enzymes are added to creams and lotions to help our cells to repair damages. The first enzymes that were used to boost reparation activity were endonuclease Т4N5B and Т4N5. The next generation of enzymes were enzymes produced by sea plankton which has a special system of protection from radiation. Plants, fish and frogs have similar protection mechanisms. Extracted enzymes are placed into liposomes; that’s why this structure is called “photosome”.